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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis working papers are preliminary materials circulated to stimulate discussion and critial comment.

International

An Evaluation of the Employment Effects of Barriers to Outsourcing

Barriers to outsourcing that are being currently implemented in the US effectively tax its companies who “export” jobs through outsourcing. The objective is to raise domestic employment.

Changes in the Second-Moment Properties of Disaggregated Capital Flows

Using formal statistical tests, we detect (i) significant volatility increases for various types of capital flows for a period of changes in business cycle comovement among the G7 countries, and (ii) mixed evidence of changes in covariances and correlations with a set of macroeconomic variables.

Unconventional Monetary Policy Had Large International Effects

The Federal Reserve’s unconventional monetary policy announcements in 2008-2009 substantially reduced international long-term bond yields and the spot value of the dollar.

Ethnic Networks and Trade: Intensive vs. Extensive Margins

Ethnic networks—as proxies for information networks—have been associated with higher levels of international trade. Previous research has not differentiated between the roles of these networks on the extensive and intensive margins.

Financial Integration, Globalization, Growth and Systemic Real Risk

Using data for a large number of advanced and emerging market economies during 1985-2009, this paper documents the dynamics of financial integration and assesses whether advances in financial integration and globalization yield the beneficial real effects resulting from a more efficient resource allocation predicted by theory.

Common Fluctuations in OECD Budget Balances

We analyze comovements in four measures of budget surpluses for 18 OECD countries for 1980–2008 with a dynamic latent factor model.

Biofuel Subsidies and International Trade

This paper explores optimal biofuel subsidies in a general equilibrium trade model. The focus is on the production of biofuels such as corn-based ethanol, which diverts corn from use as food.

Cross-Border Lobbying in Preferential Trading Agreements: Implications for External Tariffs

This paper examines the effect of cross-border lobbying on domestic lobbying and on external tariffs in both Customs Union (CU) and Free Trade Area (FTA).

Sources of Exchange Rate Fluctuations: Are They Real or Nominal?

I analyze the role of real and monetary shocks on the exchange rate behavior using a structural vector autoregressive model of the US vis-à-vis the rest of the world.

Incidence of an Outsourcing Tax on Intermediate Inputs

The paper uses a Hecksher-Ohlin-Samuelson type general equilibrium framework to consider the incidence of an outsourcing tax on an economy in which the production of a specific intermediate input has been fragmented and outsourced.

Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism in Developing Countries: An Empirical Assessment

This paper finds that political freedom has a significant and non-linear effect on domestic terrorism, but this effect is not significant in the case of transnational terrorism.

Foreign Aid as Counterterrorism Policy

This paper presents a model where foreign aid bolsters a developing country’s proactive counterterrorism efforts against a resident transnational terrorist group.

Resolving the Unbiasedness Puzzle in the Foreign Exchange Market

An unresolved puzzle in the empirical foreign exchange literature is that tests of forward rate unbiasedness using the forward rate and forward premium equations yield markedly different conclusions about the unbiasedness of the forward exchange rate.

Mexico’s Integration into NAFTA Markets: A View from Sectoral Real Exchange Rates

Using a self-exciting threshold autoregressive model, we confirm the presence of nonlinearities in sectoral real exchange rate (SRER) dynamics across Mexico, Canada and the US in the pre-NAFTA and post-NAFTA periods.

Do European Capital Flows Comove?

We study the cross-section correlations of net, total, and disaggregated capital flows for the major source and recipient European Union countries. We seek evidence of changes in these correlations since the introduction of the euro to understand whether the European Union can be considered a unique entity with regard to its international capital flows.

The Cyclical Properties of Disaggregated Capital Flows

We analyze the second-moment properties of the components of international capital flows and their relationship to business cycle variables (output, investment, and real interest rate) in 22 industrial and emerging countries.

Threshold Adjustment in Deviations from the Law of One Price

Using self-exciting threshold autoregressive models, we explore the validity of the law of one price (LOOP) for sixteen sectors in nine European countries.

International Comovements in Inflation Rates and Country Characteristics

Common shocks, similarities in central bank reaction functions, and international trade potentially produce common components in international inflation rates.

Enlargement and Common External Tariff in a Political-Economic Model of Customs Union

We present a model with three blocks of nations: two of the blocks are members of a Customs Union (CU) and maintain a common external tariff (CET) on the third (non member).

The Dynamic Interaction of Trading Flows, Macroeconomic Announcements and the CAD/USD Exchange Rate: Evidence from Disaggregated Data

We explore the relationship between disaggregated trading flows, the Canada/U.S. dollar (CAD/USD) market and U.S. macroeconomic announcements with a novel data set of unprecedented breadth and length. <a href="http://research.stlouisfed.org/econ/cneely/Data_Appendix_The_Dynamic_Interaction.pdf">Data Appendix</a>.

Equity Portfolio Diversification under Time-Varying Predictability and Comovements: Evidence from Ireland, the US, and the UK

We use multivariate regime switching vector autoregressive models to characterize the time-varying linkages among short-term interest rates (monetary policy) and stock returns in the Irish, the US and UK markets.

Offshoring, Economic Insecurity, and the Demand for Social Insurance

The fear of offshoring, particularly in services since 2000, has raised workers economic insecurity and heightened concerns over future economic globalization. Many have argued that globalization has exacerbated labor market turbulence increasing the demand for social insurance programs.

Political Asymmetry and Common External Tariff in a Customs Union

This paper examines the effect of political and economic asymmetries in the formation of common external tariffs (CETs) in a customs union (CU). We do so by introducing possible cross-border lobbying and by endogenizing tariff formation in a political economic model for the determination of CETs.

Jumps, Cojumps and Macro Announcements

We use recently proposed tests to extract jumps and cojumps from three types of assets: stock index futures, bond futures, and exchange rates. We then characterize the dynamics of these discontinuities and informally relate them to U.S. macroeconomic releases before using limited dependent variable models to formally model how news surprises explain (co)jumps.

Managing International Portfolios with Small Capitalization Stocks

In the context of an international portfolio diversification problem, we find that small capitalization equity portfolios become riskier in bear markets, i.e. display negative co-skewness with other stock indices and high co-kurtosis. Because of this feature, a power utility investor ought to hold a well-diversified portfolio, despite the high risk premium and Sharpe ratios offered by small capitalization stocks.

Do Donors Care about Declining Trade Revenues from Liberalization? An Analysis of Aid Allocation

Many developing country governments rely heavily on trade tax revenue. Therefore, trade liberalization can be a potential source of significant fiscal instability, and may affect government spending on development activities.

Trade and Child Labor: A General Equilibrium Analysis

This paper augments the existing literature on trade and child labor by exploring the effects of terms of trade changes in the context of a three good general equilibrium model, where one of the goods is a non-traded good.

Foreign Aid and Export Performance: A Panel Data Analysis of Developing Countries

The effect of foreign aid on economic activity of a country can be dampened due to potentially adverse effects on exports through a real exchange rate appreciation.

Corruption and Trade Protection: Evidence from Panel Data

This paper provides new estimates of the effects of corruption and poor institutions on trade protection. It exploits data on several measures of trade protection including import duty, international trade taxes, and the trade-GDP ratio.

Nash Equilibrium Tariffs and Illegal Immigration: An Analysis of Preferential Trade Liberalization

We use a version of the small-union Meade model to consider the effects of interdependent import tariffs in the presence illegal immigration.


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