Mortgage loans are a striking example of a persistent nominal rigidity. As a result, under
incomplete markets, monetary policy affects decisions through the cost of new mortgage
borrowing and the value of payments on outstanding debt.
The nature of the business cycle appears to have changed. Prior to the 1990s, recoveries
from recessions were quick and steep; after the past three recessions, however, recoveries were
weak and prolonged.
We study the use of intermediated assets as media of exchange in a neo-
classical growth model. An intermediary is delegated control over productive
capital and finances itself by issuing claims against the revenue generated by
The level of aggregate excess reserves held by U.S. depository institutions increased significantly
at the peak of the financial crisis of 2007-09. Although the amount of aggregate reserves is almost
entirely determined by the policy initiatives of the central bank that act on the asset side of its
balance sheet, the motivations of individual banks in accumulating reserves differ and respond
to the impact of changes in the economic environment on individual institutions.
We use a general equilibrium finance model that features explicit government purchases
of private debts to shed light on some of the principal working mechanisms of the Federal
Reserve’s large-scale asset purchases (LSAP) and their macroeconomic effects.
This paper uses several methods to study the interrelationship among Divisia monetary aggregates, prices, and income, allowing for nonstationary, nonlinearities, asymmetries, and time-varying relationships among the series.
Policymakers often use measures of tax incidence (generational accounts) as criteria for policy selection. We use a quantitative model of optimal intergenerational policy to evaluate the ability of the tax incidence metric to capture the identity of recipients and contributors and the magnitudes transferred.
Most empirical studies based on U.S. data suggest that the fiscal multiplier is less
than 1 (e.g., Barro and Redlick, 2011). However, Keynes argued that the multiplier
would be the largest when markets have failed to the greatest extent in coordinating
economic activities (such as during the Great Depression with rampant unemployment
and low capacity utilization).
We construct a model to capture the Keynesian idea that production and employment
decisions are based on expectations of aggregate demand driven by sentiments and
that realized demand follows from the production and employment decisions of firms.
We present a thought-provoking study of two monetary models: the cash-in-advance and
the Lagos and Wright (2005) models. We report that the different approach to modeling
money—reduced-form vs. explicit role—neither induces theoretical nor quantitative differences
On May 29, 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported that several large international banks were reporting unjustifiably low LIBOR rates. Since then two large banks, Barclays and UBS, have paid significant fines for manipulating their LIBOR rates, and additional banks are expected to be fined.
We estimate a DSGE model with (S,s) inventory policies. We find that (i) taking
inventories into account can significantly improve the empirical fit of DSGE models
in matching the standard business-cycle moments (in addition to explaining inventory
fluctuations); (ii) (S,s) inventory policies can significantly amplify aggregate output
fluctuations, in contrast to the findings of the recent general-equilibrium inventory
literature; and (iii) aggregate demand shocks become more important than technol-
ogy shocks in explaining the business cycle once inventories are incorporated into the
We review the responses of the Federal Reserve to financial crises over the past 100 years. The authors of the Federal Reserve Act in 1913 created an institution that they hoped would prevent banking panics from occurring.